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Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Biography | Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel ki Jivani

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Biography | Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel ki Jivani


Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Biography | Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel ki Jivani       

‘The Iron Man of India’, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1875-1950) was a freedom fighter as well as the first Deputy Prime Minister of independent India.

              
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel belonged to the farming community and his patriotic father Jhaverbhai had been a soldier of the first freedom fight of 1857. Born on 31stOctober 1875 in Karamsad village of Gujarat, Vallabhbhai showed signs of leadership from his strong will power.
           
He was married in 1891 and completed his Matriculation in 1897. Then he became a district pleader and started practicing in Godhra and later in Borsad. In 1910 he went to England to study law and stood first in the examination of Bar-at-law. After returning in 1913, he began practicing in Ahmedabad and earned a good name as a criminal lawyer. He was more like an Englishman and had no interest in politics or freedom struggle.
           
Then Vallabhbhai Patel met Mahatma Gandhi and soon they two became good friends. Slowly Vallabhbhai got involved and became one of the chief generals in the country’s fight against the British rule. He helped eradicating the evil custom of ‘Begar’ from Gujarat.
           
In 1918 the farmers of Gujarat were in trouble as heavy rains had destroyed the crops and the government insisted on them paying the taxes. Vallabhbhai gave courage to the farmers to fight against the injustice and finally the British had to remit the taxes.
           
During the Non Cooperation Movement, he left his lucrative law practice. He started Gujarat Vidyapeeth to boycott the government run schools. When the people of Bardoli had problems due to the natural calamities followed by the increase in government taxes, Vallabhbhai Patel stood like a pillar of strength. He led the people through the very difficult Satyagraha, till the government withdrew its unjust taxes. Then Gandhiji conferred the title of ‘Sardar’ on Vallabhbhai.
           
In 1930 he was jailed twice and in 1931, his fiery speeches as the President of the Congress session landed him in prison. During the 1942 ‘Quit India Movement’ he was imprisoned for three years.
            
He was appointed the Deputy Prime Minister of independent India and he was also the Home and State Minister. Sardar Patel efficiently handled the tough situation of partition and the communal riots. He also managed the tricky problem of independent Princely states and made sure that these rulers joined the Indian Union. That’s how he earned the name ‘The Iron Man of India’.
             
Sardar Patel left for his heavenly abode on 15th December 1950.

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Sarojini Naidu Biography | Sarojini Naidu as a Freedom Fighter

Sarojini Naidu Biography | Sarojini Naidu as a Freedom Fighter


     Sarojini Naidu Biography | Sarojini Naidu as a Freedom Fighter         

Sarojini Naidu (1879 – 1949 ) was called the Nightingale of India. She was a freedom fighter as well as a gifted poetess.

             
Her father, Aghomath Chattopadhyaya was the founder of Nizam College in Hyderabad. Sarojini was born on 13th February 1879 in Hyderabad. She was a linguist and knew many languages like Telugu, Urdu, Persian, English and Bengali.
             
In 1898 she married Dr. Govindrajulu Naidu by Brahmo Samaj customs in Madras (now Chennai). They had four children.
            
In 1905 there was unrest all over the country after the partition of Bengal. Sarojini got involved in the freedom struggle. She toured all over India, gave speeches spreading the awareness of freedom fight. She worked for the rights of the indigo farmers of Champaran in Bihar.
            
She went to England in July 1919 as the representative of the Home Rule League. On her return in 1920, she joined Gandhiji’s Non Cooperation Movement to protest against the British rule. She was arrested several times during the freedom fight and spent many days in jail. She was the first woman to be elected as the President of Indian National Congress in 1925. She accompanied Gandhiji to England in 1931, to attend the Round Table Conference.
            
Sarojini Naidu was also a fine poetess. She wrote verses which could be set to tunes. The first collection of her poems,’The Golden Threshold’, was published in 1905. There are some more volumes of her poems, such as ‘The Bird of Time’, ‘The Broken Wings’, The Magic Tree’, ‘The Wizard Mask’ and ‘A Treasury of Poems’. She has written the first biography of Jinnah, ‘The Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity’.
             
When India became independent in 1947, she was appointed the first Governor of Uttar Pradesh. She was the first woman Governor of India. She died in office on 2nd March 1949, at Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh.


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Tipu Sultan History | Tipu Sultan Biography

Tipu Sultan History | Tipu Sultan Biography


            

       Tipu Sultan History | Tipu Sultan Biography     

The son of the Mysore ruler Haider Ali and his second wife Fatima, Tipu was born on 20th November 1750 at Devanhalli near Bangalore.
           
Tipu was a great warrior. He had learnt the art of sword fighting and other military warfare from the French officers in his father’s service. Tipu was a Sunni Muslim and followed Koran religiously. But he tolerant towards other religions and had built Church and Temples along with Mosques.
           
Tipu was a linguist and also a noted poet. He had studied different languages and also subjects like Science and Mathematics.
           
When Tipu was 15 years old, he went on war with his father. This war of 1766 was called as First Mysore War, he defeated the British. In the same years, after his father’s death, Tipu was crowned as the Sultan of Mysore.
           
Tipu was a far-sighted ruler. He recognized the threat of the British invasion, so he tried to form pacts with the Mughals and the Marathas. He was a just ruler who looked after the welfare of his subjects. He built roads in his kingdom and also dams and tanks for the irrigation of the agriculture. He encouraged new inventions. He possessed many different types of weapons. He built many palaces and forts, but most of them were destroyed by the foreign invaders.
           
Tipu sultan’s capital was Srirangapattanam. He and his father had developed rocket artillery for the war. These rockets were prepared in a place known as Taramandal Pet and some soldiers were specially trained to operate these rockets during war.
           
However, Tipu lost the Third Mysore War in 1790 and the Fourth Mysore War in 1799, against the British. In 1799, his capital city was invaded by breaking the walls surrounding the city. Tipu fought valiantly, he continued attacking the enemy even when he was severely wounded by sword cuts and gunshots. He died still holding the sword in his hand.


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Tulsidas Biography

Tulsidas Biography



Tulsidas Biography

            
Goswami Tulsidas (1532-1623) was a great devout poet and philosopher. He is the most well known saint and poet in Hindi.
            
Tulsidas was born in a Brahmin family in Rajpur, Uttar Pradesh, in the year 1532. It is said that he was abandoned by his parents due to star forecast. A sadhu looked after him and thus he developed devotional inclination.
            
Later he was reunited with his family and was married to Ratnavali. They had a son who died at a young age. Tulsidas’s wife, who was a devotee of Rama, turned even more towards religion after her son’s death. Tulsidas also followed the path, renounced the world and traveled to the various places of pilgrimage in India.
             
In 1574, he began writing Ramayana in simple language of common people. He wrote Ramacharitamanasa in two years and seven months. In the later part of his life, he moved to Benaras and the most of this poem was completed at this place.
             
The version of Ramayana, commonly known as Tulsidas Ramayana, is very popular among the devotees and the beautiful couplets or the Chaupais are sung till date. Many quotations and phrases from this Ramacharitamanasa are used as proverbs in daily life.
             
Tulsidas considered Narahari Das his guru. Tulsidas has also written eleven other books. Apart from Ramayana, his most read book is Hanuman Chalisa, a poem written in the praise of Lord Hanuman. Tulsidas did not preach nor was he any guru, but he is considered as a saint and an inspiration in spiritualism. The philosophy explained through simple language in his poems is influential to even the modern day followers.
              
This great poet-saint died in 1623 at the age of 91, at Benaras.


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Maharana Pratap Biography

Maharana Pratap


Maharana Pratap Biography            

The Rajput warrior Maharana Pratap fought and laid his life for the honour of his Mewar.

            
He was the first son of Maharana Udai Singh. Even as a young man, he was good at hunting. His father had to leave his kingdom of Mewar when Mughal Emperor Akbar sent a huge army. Maharana Udai Singh founded a new city, Udaipur, in the Arawali hills. After his death, the courtiers chose Maharana Pratap as his successor and he was then coronated.
            
Following in his father’s footsteps, Maharana Pratap also refused to accept the sovereignty of Emperor Akbar. So not only the Mughal Emperor, but the other Rajput Rajas also went against him. The treasure of Mewar, kept in the chittor garh, was captured by the Mughals. Maharana Pratap had also lost his brothers and skilled army men. Yet he was firm on getting his Mewar back from the Mughals.
            
He was a self-respecting ruler. Once Raja Man Singh wished to meet Maharana Pratap. As he was a guest, Maharana offered him food and sent his son to look after the Raja. When Raja Man Singh demanded to know why the host wasn’t eating with him, Maharana came to meet him. He replied that as Raja Man Singh had gone against the Rajput traditions and had given in to the Mughal Emperor for the sake of power, so Maharana couldn’t eat with him.
            
Furious, Raja Man Singh reported this to the Emperor. Akbar then sent a vast army with Raja man Singh and Prince Salim, to subdue Maharana Pratap. Through his forces were limited as compared to the Emperor’s Army, still brave Maharana wasn’t the one to turn back. A terrible battle was fought at the Haldi Ghati. It was impossible to fight against the Mughal army.
           
Maharana took refuge in the Komalmir fort. But even that was surrounded and the enemy followed him everywhere. He had to take shelter in the forests and caves. He and his family underwent many hardships.
          
Later Maharana received financial help and once again he collected his forces. One by one he captured many forts of almost entire Mewar, except Cittor garh. But then this brave warrior passed away before completing his mission of liberating his Mewar.





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Dr C V Raman Autobiography

Dr C V Raman Autobiography


Dr C V Raman Autobiography      

The first Asian scientist to win the Nobel Prize was Dr. C.V. Raman (1888-1970).
         
Dr. chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born on 7th November 1888 at Tiruchirapally. His father was a teacher and a scholar in physics and mathematics. Raman was considered a genius since early childhood. He completed his matriculation at the age of 12 years. He passed B.A. winning a gold medal. He had a boundless curiosity to learn new things, a love for science and enthusiasm for work. He topped M.A. as well as Indian Audit and accounts service examinations from Madras University.
           
In 1907 he got married to Lokasundari Ammal. At the age of 19 he already was on a high government post. Then he was promoted to Calcutta as Assistant Accountant General. In Calcutta he began research work at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. In 1915 he left the highly paid government job to teach as a Professor in Science College of Calcutta. He became Palit Professor at the age of 29.
           
Dr. Raman’s college laboratories became active research centers as many students came to him for post graduation studies. He was so dedicated to his work that he often forgot to eat or sleep.
           
In 1921 he attended the Congress of the Universities of the British Empire in London. While travelling by sea, the scientist in him was fascinated by the deep blue colour of the Mediterranean Sea. He made a research on the scattering of the sunrays by the water molecules. His work was well appreciated. He was invited to many scientific seminars and conferences all over the world.
           
In February 1928 he discovered that the monochromatic light on scattering does not remain monochromatic. This discovery of nature’s hidden phenomenon, ‘ The Raman Effect ‘, earned him many honours including British Government’s Knighthood as well as the Nobel Prize in 1930.
           
In 1933 he was appointed the director of Indian Institute of Science. He established Indian Academy of Science in 1934 and also the Raman Research Institute, which is based on our ancient scientific research. In 1954 he was honoured with ‘Bharat Ratna’.
           
This grand old man of Indian Science passed away on 21st November 1970.





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G D Birla Biography

            

G D Birla Biography

G D Birla Biography

Many industrialists contributed to the growth of India through commerce and trade. A very important name among them was Ghanshyam Das Birla or G. D. Birla (1894-1983).

            
He was born in 1894 at Pilani in Rajasthan, but his work place was Calcutta. He began his business at the time of the First World War. One by one he set up many industries. First his started a cotton mill at Delhi. The Corporation of Birla Brothers Limited was established in 1919. He also set up jute mills in 1920.
           
G. D. Birla was not interested only in the business but he was also concerned about our country. He was in touch with Mahatma Gandhi. Birla felt that freedom from the British rule would help flourish the industries in India.
           
He established sugar and paper mills during 1930 s. these were followed by the units manufacturing cars, machinery and manmade fabrics. The Birla Brothers also founded the United Commercial Bank.
           
Their business empire ventured in to production of many things, after India got its independence. Mr. Birla started an Aluminium plant near Mirzapur. He set up fertilizer factories as well as cement factories. He began dealing in the tea business after buying tea gardens.
            
Mr. Birla has done a lot of philanthropic work as well. He has founded many educational institutions and the one at his birth place Pilani, is renowned amongst the academics. The Birla temples built in all the major cities of India add to the beauty and grandeur of the cities. He has also built planetariums and hospitals.
            
Such a great person died in London in 1983.





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Gopal Krishna Gokhale Biography | Gopal Krishna Gokhale Achievements

Gopal Krishna Gokhale



Gopal Krishna Gokhale Biography | Gopal Krishna Gokhale Achievements 

           
Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866-1915) was a great patriot who served our country with complete devotion.

            
Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born on 9th March 1866 at Kotluk village of Ratnagiri district. He belonged to a Brahmin family who were not very wealthy. Gopal Krishna Gokhale had to face difficulties as his father died when he was 13 years old. After completing his graduation in 1884, he began teaching at the Ferguson College of Deccan Education Society. In 1902 he retired from that college as its Principle.
            
Then he dedicated himself to the service of the Bombay Legislative Council. Everyone was impressed by the speeches he made as a parliamentarian. Then in 1905 he was elected as the President of the Congress.
           
everal times Gokhale went to England to discuss the issues of Indian people and our freedom struggle. He considered himself as the disciple of Justice Ranade. In politics Gokhale followed in the footsteps of Justice Ranade.
           
Gokhale founded ‘The Servants of India Society’. Here young men were trained to serve our motherland. Gokhale possessed many talents like a sharp memory, a very hard working. He was an excellent orator and could convince masses with his words. Mahatma Gandhi considered Gokhale as his political Guru. Gandhiji compared his guru to the River Ganga, saying,’ Like a mother, Ganga invites you to its folds.’ Even in politics Gokhale remained truthful and dealt in a straight, clear manner. Gandhiji, too, continued the same tradition.
            
Gokhale was single-handedly shouldering many duties like the President of Congress, Member of Public Service Commission, chief of Servants of India Society and Member of Legislative Council. This heavy work affected his health and Gopal Krishna Gokhale died on 19th February 1915.




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Indira Gandhi Death | Indira Gandhi Biography

Indira Gandhi Death | Indira Gandhi Biography

           

Indira Gandhi Death | Indira Gandhi Biography 

The only woman Prime Minister of India so far, was Mrs. Indira Gandhi(1917-1984). Not only was she a powerful Prime Minister, but also was a great statesman.

             
She was the only daughter of Kamala and Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, who named her Priyadarshini Indira. She was born on 19th November 1917 at Anand Bhavan, Allahabad. Her father as well as her grandfather Pt. Motilal Nehru was great freedom fighters. But she made her place in the politics on her own merit.
             
She grew up in the atmosphere of politics. Since childhood Gandhiji’s patriotism and great value had a deep impression on her mind. Indira completed her schooling from Pune, and then studied in the austere surroundings of Shantiniketan. After that she was sent to Switzerland and England. After her return, she got married to Feroze Gandhi in 1941. They had two sons, Rajiv and Sanjay.
             
When India got independence on 15th August 1947, Pt. Nehru was appointed the first Prime Minister. Indira Gandhi assisted him by looking after his appointments and accompanying him on tours. She was made the President of Congress and she proved her merit as a leader.
            
After Pt. Nehru’s death, Lal Bahadur Shastri was the Prime Minister and Indira Gandhi was the Information and Broadcasting Minister in the cabinet. Then Lal Bahadur Shastri’s sudden demise in January 1966 made her the first woman Prime Minister of India.
            
Because of her firm and hard working nature, she was successful as a Prime minister. In 1971 our country had to face an attack from Pakistan as well as problem of refugees from East Bengal (then a part of Pakistan) but Indiara Gandhi handled the situation very well and East Bengal got its independence as  a new country, Bangla Desh.
            
Later she had to daclare emergency in 1975. She lost the 1977 elections and Janata party came to power. But indiara Gandhi and the Congress Party again won the election in 1980. Afterwards there were issues of Khalistan in Punjab. She had to take some strict action through Operation Blue Star. This resulted in a fatal attack on her. On 31st October 1984 this dynamic personality fell to the assassin’s gun.


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Jamsetji Tata Biography

Jamsetji Tata

          


Now industries are flourishing all over the country. But the one, who made the beginning of the industrial development more than 100 years ago, was Jamshetji Tata. He was the pioneers of the Indian Industry. He wasn’t only an industrialist, but also a nationalist and a humanist.

            
Jamshetji (1839-1904) was the son of Nasarvanji Tata, who was a trader of jute. In the 19thcentury India was under the British rule so all the cloth came from England. But Jamshetji set up a cloth mill in Nagpur. This, in a way, could be said as a beginning of ‘swadeshi’.
            
He was a farsighted visionary. He had realized that for the proper development of the industries in India, it was essential to start an iron and steel industry. He worked on the project. He advised his sons, not only about the industry, but also about the planning of the city around it. He could not live to see the city of his dreams take shape. But three years after his death, his sons, Sir Dorabji and Sir Ratanji, built up the steel city of India, Jamshedpur, in 1907. Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited is the largest company in India with assets of over five thousand crores.
             
This was not the only industry set up by Jamshedji. He planned a hydroelectric project in Bombay, but this too took shape only after his death. He also founded the Taj Hotel in Bombay. It was the most magnificent and luxurious hotel of its time. It was completed in 1903 and almost 4.21 crores were spent on building it.
             
He also recognized the importance of education and the need of development in the field of science. So he started the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore. He set up JN Tata Endowment Trust, which helped the students with scholarships to study abroad. He created wealth, which he used for the betterment of his country and its people.
             
Jamshedji Tata expired in 1904 in Germany.





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